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APPENDIX II
ing unit of a Malta-based online betting company that offers gambling on
sport, including NBA games.
Some integrity threats may be subject to the collective bargaining agree-
ment between the NBA and the NBAPA. For example, the two sides concurred
on a drug-testing programme that sanctions users of recreational and per-
formance-enhancing drugs. The latter has not been a significant concern
historically, and the testing programmes are less rigorous than adopted by
WADA.
64
Personal misconduct policy has also figured in collective bargaining,
although league policy also allows management at the franchise level lati-
tude in policing and sanctioning certain behaviours such as insubordination
towards coaches or missing or being late to practice.
Over the years, the NBA has endured notorious incidents of individual mis-
conduct, including crimes rooted in gambling, fighting, recreational drug use,
driving while impaired, and violence against women (recall the case studies
on Kobe Bryant and the Indiana Pacers in section 4).
65
There is significant
debate as to why such incidents seem so prevalent in basketball, with some
people pointing to lax policy at the league level and others blaming a culture
that implicitly sanctions misbehaviour by high-potential athletes at an early
age –as long as they produce on the court, much will be forgiven away from
it. This cultural explanation may be compounded by certain youth basketball
programmes that attempt to accelerate the development of promising play-
ers, as well as by the practice of some suppliers of clothing and equipment of
donating equipment to top youth teams in hopes of gaining an inside track
should one of the players become a professional.
66
Meanwhile, worrisome incidents continue. In 2011, for example, Tony Allen
of the Memphis Grizzlies was fined for fighting with teammate O.J. Mayo on a
charter flight over repayment of a gambling debt. A similar but more serious
incident occurred in December 2009, when Washington Wizards star Gilbert
Arenas, one of the league’s highest-paid players, and Javaris Crittenton, a
young teammate earning a minimum salary, brandished unloaded guns in
the team’s locker room in an ongoing dispute over a gambling debt. Following
an investigation, both players were suspended for the remainder of the season
and faced criminal penalties, eventually settled as probationary sentences.
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