114
ENDNOTES
13 For numerous examples, see David Forrest, Ian McHale, and Kevin McAuley,
Risks to the Integrity of
Sport from Betting Corruption
, a report for the Central Council for Physical Recreation by the Centre
for the Study of Gambling, University of Salford, February 2008
Download/22012009/SalfordREPORT_Feb08.pdf (accessed 18 February 2011).
14 On Tim Donaghy see, e.g. ESPN: NBA, “Donaghy sentenced to 15 months in prison in gambling
scandal”, 20 July 2008,
(accessed 24 February
2011). For the banned Pakistani bowlers, see ‘Spot Fixing Scandal Verdict: ICC Ban Butt, Asif and
Amir”,
World Cricket Watch
, 6 February 2011
-
scandal-verdict-icc-ban-butt-asif-and-amir/ (accessed 24 Feburary 2011).
15 Janine Young Kim and Matthew J. Parlow, “Off-Court Misbehaviour: Sports Leagues and Private
Punishment”,
Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology
, Vol. 99, No. 3 (2009), p. 573.
16 Brian R. Socolow, “What Every Player Should Know about Morals Clauses”,
Moves
, Vol 4., No. 2, p.
186,
PublicationAttachment/70f8fe3f-a00e-4882-83da-0096ecbab624/Brian%20Socolow%2c%20
Moves%20Magazine.pdf (accessed 18 February 2011).
17 “NFL Personal Conduct Policy”,
ESPN.com
, March 13, 2007,
/_/
id/21598/nfl-personal-conduct-policy (accessed 18 February 2011).
18
Ibid.
, and Jason La Canfora, “Goodell issues memo highlighting NFL’s personal-conduct policy”,
NFL.
com News
, 15 April 2010,
-
memo-highlighting-nfls-personalconduct-policy (accessed 18 February 2011).
19 Chris Barrett, “Melbourne Storm stripped of premierships for salary cap breaches”, 22 April 2010
-
salary-cap-breaches-20100422-td91.html (accessed 24 February 2010).
20 Ben McGrath, “Does Football Have a Future”,
The New Yorker
, 31 January 2011,
.
com/reporting/2011/01/31/110131fa_fact_mcgrath (accessed 18 February 2011).
21 Christopher Knittel and Victor Stango, “Shareholder Value Destruction following the Tiger Woods
Scandal”, University of California, Davis, working paper, 28 December 2009,
.
edu/faculty/knittel/papers/tiger_latest.pdf (accessed 18 February 2011).
22 Steve Watts, “Tiger Woods Scandal Blamed for Declining Game Sales”, 19 July 2010,
.
com/news/tiger-woods-scandal-blamed-declining (accessed 18 February 2011).
23 Garry Smitts, With Tiger Woods Struggling and TV Deal Looming, PGA Tour Faces a Challenging
Course”,
-
looming-pga-tour-faces-challenging (accessed 18 February 2011).
24 Bill Briggs, “Price tag for Tiger’s transgressions? $50 Million,”
msnbc.com
, March 16, 2010,
msnbc.msn.com/id/35767087/ns/business-sports_biz/ (accessed 18 February 2011).
25 “The 50 highest-earning American athletes”,
SI.com
,
/
fortunate50-2010/index.html (accessed 18 February 2011). The 2010 spread between Woods and
Mickelson is approximately $29 million, of which $10 million came from winning the 2009 FedEx Cup.
The difference in 2009, when Mickelson also was second on the list, was $46.8 million.
26 We assessed the
Forbes
valuations all teams in NBA, NFL, NHL and international football teams
for 2009 and compared them with both revenues and EBITDA. The pattern was very similar for all
teams, valuations are very highly correlated with revenue (between 0.99 for MLB teams and 0.89 for
American football), whereas valuations fluctuate greatly with EBITDA, suggesting it is not a strong
driver of valuation.
27 Benoît Hopquin and Stéphane Mandard, “Tour de France : le syndrome du catch”,
Le Monde,
27 June
2007, “
_
ARCH_30J&objet_id=999143&clef=ARC-TRK-D_01 (requires subscription) (accessed 24 February
2011).
28 Swiss Lab for Doping Analyses, “The Athlete’s Biological Passport”,
lad_home/lad-prestations-labouratoire/lad-prestations-labouratoire-passeport.htm (accessed 18
February 2011).
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