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MAPPING INTEGRITY THREATS
in earlier episodes. This will increase the probability of a well-calibrated
response to an actual or potential integrity breach. Moreover, getting the right
level of analysis at the outset conveys a sense of how containable an integrity
breach may or may not be, under the general rule that one malefactor gener-
ally does less damage than many.
Table 1: Typology of Integrity Threats by Level of Origination
INDIVIDUAL
Cheating and Misconduct
 1. Match Fixing
 2. “Spot” or Occurrence Fixing
 3. Performance Enhancement
 4. Conduct Detrimental to Sport
COLLECTIVE
Wrongdoing or Negligence (by Clubs or at Events)
 5. Organised Cheating and Collusion
 6. Eligibility Deception
 7. Management Malfeasance
 8. Inadequate Physical Security
SYSTEMIC
Wrongdoing (Overarching – League or Transnational –Governance or Regulation)
 9. Systemic Wrongdoing
10. Health and Welfare Negligence
The following discussion is weighted towards the most significant integrity
threats of doping, gambling-related match fixing, and individual misconduct.
Readers should refer to Appendix I for the comprehensive list with examples.
DOPING AND PERFORMANCE ENHANCING DRUGS
For a few elite athletes who succeed by doping and successfully concealing it,
gain and glory result. Doping can help marginal athletes thrive and good ath-
letes perform at extraordinary levels. For example, anabolic steroids, which
build muscle and strength, and were once common in only weightlifting and
bodybuilding, spread to other sports like baseball, American football, and
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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