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MAPPING INTEGRITY THREATS
OTHER COLLECTIVE AND SYSTEMIC WRONGDOING
OR NEGLIGENCE
Beyond the three most significant threats to sports integrity lie several cat-
egories of collective (group or team) or systemic (league-, federation- or
association-wide) wrongdoing. Compared to individual gambling-related
misconduct, doping, or the varieties of unbecoming conduct, many of the
integrity threats discussed below will be relatively rare. They may, however,
pose costs and ramifications throughout the sport’s ecosystem that are every
bit as significant as the top three integrity threats.
Collusion by teams, officials, or corporate actors
in an effort to subvert
legitimate competition is relatively rare in sport. When such collusive behav-
iour does take place, it generally involves an attempt to gain advantage in
league standings or tournament rankings or seedings. Even though mone-
tary rewards are less likely to be the goal, the advantages won are generally
convertible into monetary gain for individuals and clubs. Moreover, the be-
havioural toolbox of collective cheating–underperformance, pre-contest
agreement with an opponent on a mutually advantageous outcome, bribery
of officials to facilitate or obstruct the advance of a particular participant or
team– is similar to that of cheating in return for monetary payment. An exam-
ple is “Calciogate”, the 2006 Italian football scandal in which several top-tier
clubs colluded to arrange the assignment of favourable referees to important
matches. The episode resulted in the relegation of Juventus F.C. and will be
discussed in greater detail in the next section.
Both amateur and professional teams may attempt to perpetrate
eligibil-
ity deception
by recruiting or fielding players who are ineligible to compete
according to the rules. The nature of the specific ineligibility may be age, gen-
der, nationality, or status (amateur vs. professional). In American school and
college sports, eligibility is further subject to requirements that players meet
minimum academic standards (e.g. classroom attendance and performance).
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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