31
MAPPING INTEGRITY THREATS
The most prominent recent amateur eligibility cases involved the American
football and basketball programmes at the University of Southern Califor-
nia, which were sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association
(NCAA) for fielding players (Reggie Bush in American football and O.J.
Mayo in basketball) who had benefited from improper payments from pro-
fessional agents.
Collective
management malfeasance
occurs when team officials, event
managers, or other administrative groups combine to violate the integrity of
sport. This may include flagrant violations, persistent infringement of rules,
or the instigation or condoning of illegal or inappropriate behaviour at ad-
ministrative levels, both on and off the field. An unusual instance of flagrant
malfeasance involved the Melbourne Storm–Australian rugby’s “team of the
decade” for the 2000s –whose management confessed to running a shad-
ow contract and bookkeeping system that concealed salary cap violations
amounting to $3.21 million in payments to players. The NRL subsequently
stripped the club of its titles from 2006 to 2009, fined it a record $1.7 million,
and imposed a variety of other penalties and bans for the 2010 season.
19
Today, concerns over
inadequate physical security
are magnified as ma-
jor sports court markets in countries undergoing rapid economic and social
transformation, such as China, South Africa, Brazil, and India. As sponsors
push for revenue growth and brand exposure in emerging markets, reputa-
tional and security risks rise accordingly. To these concerns can be added
heightened awareness of terrorist interest in accessible, high-profile targets.
The responsibility to provide a safe, secure, and enjoyable experience for ath-
letes, officials, and fans must also include deterrence of hooliganism and fan
violence as well prevention of abusive or offensive behaviours such as racial
or homophobic taunting. Football hooliganism remains a prominent feature
in European and Latin American leagues; in Argentina, organised gangs of
football partisans known as
Las Barras Bravas
have been a fixture for decades.
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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