51
__________
i
Report to the Commissioner of Baseball of an Independent Inves-
tigation into the Illegal Use of Steroids and Other Performance
Enhancing Substances by Players in Major League Baseball
,
Summary and Recommendations
(2007–the Mitchell Re-
port), pp. SR-14-SR-15.
ii A retired player may stay on the Hall of Fame ballot for
15 years provided he receives votes on five per cent of the
ballots, which are cast by members of the Baseball Writ-
ers’ Association of America. Once regarded a shoo-in,
McGwire has been on the ballot for five years and, follow-
ing his admission of drug use in 2010, has watched his
support dwindle to its lowest point, 19.8 per cent.
iii “Baseball”,
Gallup,
-
ball.aspx (accessed 18 February 2011).
iv On attendance, see statistics maintained by Rodney
Fort of the University of Michigan:
fort.com/SportsData/MLB/MLBData.html (accessed 18
February 2011). Attendance growth from 2000 to 2009
was 0.0084 per cent (from 72,748,970 to 73,364,441).
For a time series of television ratings of the World Series,
see “World Series Television Ratings”,
Baseball Almanac
(accessed 18 February 2011). Other reasons for a waning
interest in baseball include increasingly popular alterna-
tive activities and entertainments, a decline in youth
interest in the sport, and structural competitive im-
balance in which a few wealthy teams dominate the
sport while less wealthy teams struggle to retain their
fan bases.
v See, for example, Ian O’Connor, “A-Rod Can’t Inject
Meaning into No. 600”,
ESPN New York,
.
go.com/new-york/columns/story?columnist=oconnor_
ian&id=5396727 (accessed 13 January 2011). For a
poignant take on the impact of the steroid scandal
on a passionate Boston Red Sox fan, see Bill Sim-
mons, “Confronting my worst nightmare”,
ESPN Page
2
, 9 May 2009,
story?page=simmons/090507&sportCat=mlb (accessed
18 February 2011). Simmons was reflecting on reports
that the team’s star hitters, Manny Ramirez and David
Ortiz, had been using steroids in 2004 when the Red
Sox won their first championship in 86 years.
FIGURE II: POPULARITY OF PROFESSIONAL BASEBALL IN THE UNITED STATES, 1993–2008
40
50
60
% Yes, a fan/Somewhat of a fan
Are you a fan of professional baseball, or not?
Source: Gallup Poll,
1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
50 50
50
45
48
45
45
44
43
56
54
49
48
48
51
QUANTIFYING THE COSTS OF INTEGRITY BREACHES
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
1...,45,46,47,48,49,50,51,52,53,54 56,57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,...124