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APPENDIX I
INDIVIDUAL CHEATING AND MISCONDUCT
Threat
Description and rationale
Example
1. Match Fixing
Fixing Related
to Betting
• Players
• Coaches
• Officials
Players or officials collude with illegal betting
syndicates or other corrupt third parties to pre-
determine result of competition, usually in return
for payment.
• 2000:
Hansie Cronje
: South African cricketer Cronje
admitted to match fixing in conjunction with an
Indian gambling syndicate was banned for life.
• 2005:
Máfia do Apito
: Two football referees in Brazil
accepted bribes to fix prominent matches, resulting
in 11 matches being replayed.
• 2005:
Bundesliga Scandal
: German referees, led by
Robert Hoyzer, conspired with gambling syndicates to
fix matches, including a German Cup match.
Providing Inside
Information
• Players
• Coaches
• Other team
members
• Officials
Players or team officials accept bribe in return
for inside information, such as team selection,
pitch conditions, or strategy before a game,
improving odds for illegal betting syndicates to
profit from match.
• 1994-1995: “
John the Bookmaker” Controversy
:
Indian bookmaker paid Australian cricketers Mark
Waugh and Shane Warne for information about
pitch and weather conditions. Players were quietly
fined, but episode became public scandal when
revealed in 1998.
Corrupt or Biased
Officiating
Sports are vulnerable to nationalistic bias and
vote trading, particularly where outcomes are
partly subjective – e.g. figure skating, gym-
nastics, diving. Consequent risk of collusion
among judges or governing bodies to inflate or
diminish scores.
Officials may be biased or bought off , favouring
one side by awarding it advantages while penal-
ising the other excessively, disallowing its goals,
whistling its scoring chances dead, etc.
• 2002:
Winter Olympics Pairs Figure Skating
:
Russian pair wins gold, French judge admitted
she gave them high marks in quid pro quo that
helped the French ice dancing team win gold;
judge later retracted statement, but after investiga-
tion Canadian team named co-champion, awarded
its own gold medal.
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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