89
APPENDIX I
Threat
Description and rationale
Example
2. Occurrence or “Spot” Fixing
Spot Fixing Related
to Betting
• Players
• Coaches
• Officials
Relatively new variation on match-fixing involv-
ing arranging for a particular occurrence at
specific “spot” in a match, which illegal betting
syndicates will then wager on (usually for in-
run betting).
Point-shaving an early variation, in which player
conspires to prevent a team from covering a bet
on point spread by deliberately missing shots or
committing turnovers or fouls.
Refereeing official may conspire to shave points,
may call fouls, award penalty shots, otherwise
help augment or depress a team’s score to
ensure that specified team covers spread.
• 2007:
Tim Donaghy
: NBA referee Donaghy pleaded
guilty to informing co-conspirators of how best to bet
the point spread in contests he was officiating and
thus in a position to affect.
• 2010:
Essex CC Spot-fixing
: Essex cricketers
Danish Kaneria, a Pakistan leg-spinner, and Mervyn
Westfield, a right-arm seam bowler, were arrested
for spot-fixing during a one-day game against Durham
in September 2009. Both men were free to continue
playing until September 15, 2010.
• 2010:
“No-Ball” Scandal
: Pakistan’s cricket team
the subject of a sting in which middle man who was
actually investigative reporter paid £150,000 in return
for two Pakistan bowlers purposely delivering “no-
balls” at preordained moments of match.
3. Illegal or Improper Performance Enhancement –Human and Animal
Banned
Substances
Decision to use banned substances is usually a
personal one (perhaps in collusion with trainer
or coach).
• Elite athletes striving to pile up records,
gratify egos, forestall ravages of time, be
“the best there ever was.”
• Just below the elite and needing small boost
to perform at sport’s highest levels.
• Players on the cusp, bottom-of-the-list per-
formers in sport’s highest division or league
and needing performance-enhancing help to
enter or stay at top level.
• 2002:
Johann Mühlegg
: Spanish cross-country skier
tested positive for darbepoetin at the Winter Olym-
pics, is stripped of the two gold medals.
• 2003:
Dwain Chambers
: British Sprinter banned
from competing for testing positive for THG, later
found to have been taking cocktail of drugs. Serv-
ing life-time Olympic ban, returned to competition
after a stint playing American Football for the
Hamburg Sea Devils.
• 2007:
Marion Jones
: American athlete, winner of
five medals at 2000 Sydney Olympics, admitted to
using steroids. Stripped of medals and sentenced to
prison for perjury.
• 2009:
Alex Rodriguez
: U.S. baseball player with N.Y.
Yankees admitted to using unspecified performance-
enhancing drugs during 2001-2004 while playing for
previous team; in 2010, to yawns of indifference,
becomes youngest man to reach 600-home-run
milestone. “Greatest of Era” players involved in
doping include
Barry Bonds, Roger Clemens, Mark
McGwire, Raphael Palmeiro, Manny Ramirez
, and
Sammy Sosa
.
Gene Doping
Use of cells, genes, genetic elements, or of
the modulation of gene expression to improve
athletic performance.
An emerging threat:
no known cases, regulatory
agencies are already warning of potential abuse.
Detection testing remains in development.
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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