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APPENDIX I
Threat
Description and rationale
Example
Illegal Equipment,
Technology-Based
Advantage
Illegal modifications confer performance advan-
tages on users.
Equipment advances can give early-adopting
competitors using next-generation equipment an
advantage.
Traditional forms of underhanded but legal activi-
ties – e.g. naked-eye sign-stealing in baseball
and American football –may be rendered more
powerful and intrusive via multiple concealed
observers and technologies such as telescopes,
binoculars, cameras, etc.
• 2003:
Bat-corking
: in the most recent of many U.S.
baseball corking incidents, the bat of Chicago Cub
Sammy Sosa shattered, revealing cork filling during a
June contest against the Tampa Bay Devil Rays.
• 2007:
Bill Belichick and “Spygate”
: An employee of
coach Belichick’s New England Patriots was discov-
ered videotaping NY Jets defensive signals; NFL fined
Belichick a record $500,000 and the club another
$250,000; Patriots also forfeited first NFL round draft
pick for 2008. Belichick nevertheless named AP’s
NFL Coach of the Year.
• 2009:
Polyurethane swimsuits
: banned by swim-
ming’s international governing body after criticism
that they create sizable advantages. Numerous world
records attained by wearers, particularly at the World
Championships in 2009.
Animal Doping
or Nobbling
Doping: race-animal trainers may administer
PEDs known to improve performance.
Nobbling: impairing the performance of
racehorses, greyhounds, other sports animals,
usually through drugging.
• 2008:
Big Brown
: trainer admits horse, winner of the
Kentucky Derby and Preakness Stakes in 2008, was
treated monthly with an anabolic steroid that in some
U.S. states is illegal for horses.
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
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