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APPENDIX I
Threat
Description and rationale
Example
COLLECTIVE CHEATING (CLUB OR EVENT LEVEL)
Threat
Description and rationale
Example
5. Organised Cheating and Collusion
Match fixing for
Competitive Advantage
Team officials, players, league officials collude
for advantage in standings or tournament. Gener-
ally no direct gambling benefit sought. Variations
include:
• Deliberately underperforming to ensure a
better draw at a later stage of a competition.
• Colluding with opponent to lose a match to
advance in rankings or leagues.
• Bribing officials to advantage a predeter-
mined “winner.”
• 2005:
Genoa
: Italian football club Genoa relegated to
Serie C1 after seeking promotion to Serie A by bribing
opponent to lose last match of the season.
• 2006:
Calciopoli
Italian Football Scandal
: Officials
from leading teams in Serie A and B, including
Juventus, found to have conspired to rig matches
by selecting favourable referees. Juventus stripped
of 2005 and 2006 national titles and relegated to
Serie B.
• 2009:
Mongolian Boxing Bribery
: AIBA Executive
Committee expels Mongolian team officials from
world amateur boxing championships in Milan for
trying to bribe a referee. No boxers expelled, and
Mongolia’s Serdamba Purevdorj defeated Russia’s
David Ayrapetyan for the light-flyweight gold medal,
country’s first-ever AIBA World Championship.
6. Eligibility Deception
Gender
Biologists have discovered exceptions to the
chromosomal XX = female, XY = male deter-
mination, making a gender determination more
difficult when questions are raised.
• 2009:
Caster Semenya
: Gender of South African run-
ner, who won the gold medal in the women’s 800m
event at the 2009 World Championships, called into
question after dramatic improvements in her times.
Allowed to keep medal and, after medical investiga-
tion, she was permitted to re-enter competition in
July 2010.
Age
In some sports, underage athletes have advan-
tages of extreme flexibility, limitless daring, and
“coachability”.
Overage athletes, particularly in juniors competi-
tions, have strength, size, durability, and experi-
ence advantages.
Questions arise when:
• Athletes from developing countries have no
official identification.
• Athletes, coaches or parents may be deliber-
ately lying about competitor’s age.
• National governing bodies may be falsifying
documents to enable athletes to compete.
• 2001:
Danny Almonte
: Sensational New York Little
League baseball player who threw a perfect game
during national tournament Almonte found to be 2
years older than League age limit of 12. Team forfeits
wins, both father and sponsoring league president
banned from Little League.
• 2008-2010:
Chinese Gymnastic Team
: several
members of the women’s gymnastics team alleged to
be underage; FIG ultimately rules all to be eligible, but
in 2010 the 2000 Olympics Chinese women’s team
is stripped of bronze medal because a member is
proven to be underage.
© MONITOR QUEST LTD. 2011
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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