1 The view that sports investment is a boost to local development has its critics, who, among other
things, downplay the social benefits and other less tangible knock-on effects of sport in favour of
more readily countable observations. The argument is mostly a dialogue between Americans. See, for
example, the work of Robert A. Baade and his colleagues. Robert A. Baade, Robert Baumann, Victor
A. Matheson, “Selling the Game: Estimating the Economic Impact of Professional Sports Through
Taxable Sales”,
Southern Economic Journal,
74:3 (2008) pp. 794-810.
2 According to contemporaneous historian Sir Edward Creasy, what Wellington actually said after
passing by a cricket match at the school years later: “There grows the stuff that won Waterloo”, cited in
Ralph Nevill,
Floreat Etona: Anecdotes and Memories of Eton College
(London: MacMillan, 1911), p. 125.
3 Ayaz Memon, “What the IPL says about India”,
ESPN Cricinfo
, 12 April 2010,
com/magazine/content/story/455812.html (accessed 18 February 2011); ViewerTrack,
World’s Most
Watched TV Sporting Events of 2009
4 Andrei S. Markovitz and Lars Rensmann,
Gaming the World: How Sports Are Reshaping Global Politics and
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010), p. 47.
5 Robert Madrigal, “Cognitive and Affective Determinants of Fan Satisfaction with Sporting Event
Journal of Leisure Research
, Vol. 27, No. 3 (1995), p. 205.
6 Michael Mandelbaum,
The Meaning of Sports: Why Americans Watch Baseball, Football, and Basketball and
What They See When They Do,
(New York: Public Affairs, 2004), p. 4.
7 For an example of the problem, see Oxford Research A/S, “The Elimination of Threats to the
Integrity of Sports”, April 2010, p. 6, which uses the dictionary definition of “integrity” as a quality of
“wholeness” before suggesting that integrity in sport is intact when the values sport represents–fair
play, comradeship, team effort and hard work, and promoting health–are observed.
playthegame.org/fileadmin/documents/examination_of_threats_to_sports_integrity.pdf (accessed 18
February 2011).
8 All quotations from the “International Olympic Committee, Olympic Charter, In Force 11 February
(accessed 18
February 2011).
9 World Anti-Doping Agency, 2009 Adverse Analytical Findings and Atypical Findings
Reported by Accredited Laboratories, “Overview of Results”,
LabouratoryStatisticsReport_Final.ashx (accessed 18 February 2011). The geography of illegal
performance enhancement in WADA data is skewed toward countries that undertake more
sophisticated and consistent testing, with a disproportionate number of adverse results therefore
reported in Western Europe.
10 International Olympic Committee, IOC Executive Board, “Decision: Regarding Ms Marion Jones”, 12
December 2008
(accessed 24 February 2011);
On This Day
, “1988: Johnson stripped of Olympic gold”,
stories/september/27/newsid_2539000/2539525.stm (accessed 24 February 2011).
11 “Speech from the IOC President, Jacque Rogge”, First World Olympic Sport Convention, Acapulco, 23
October 2010,
Acapulco/ANOC2010-First-World-Olympic-Sport-Convention-Acapulco-eng-final-2010.pdf (accessed
18 February 2011).
12 In the United States, sports wagering is illegal outside the sports books of Las Vegas casinos (although
gambling interests in Delaware and New Jersey would like to change that), and billions of dollars are
illicitly wagered on sports events. In Europe, sports bookmaking is legal, regulated, and monitored for
suspicious wagers, but a large illegal market exists nonetheless, some of which links back to Asia. In
Asia, sports wagering is with few exceptions illegal, and illegal betting is substantial. Betting on horse
racing is legal almost everywhere.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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