29 In January 2011, the Spanish cycling federation proposed a one-year ban on Contador but
overturned its decision in mid-February after deciding to rethink its verdict based on Article 296 of
UCI regulations, which states an athlete can be exonerated if he or she proves the banned produce
had been inadvertently ingested through no fault or negligence on the athlete’s part; Contador
claimed he’d eaten meat contaminated with banned substance Clenbutarol. The UCI may yet seek to
overturn this decision.
30 Reed Albergotti and Vanessa O’Connell, “Blood Brothers”,
Wall Street Journal
, 2 July 2010.
31 Matt McGrath, “Tour de France dope tests ‘flawed’ says French Agency”,
BBC News
, 2 July 2010, http://
(accessed 27 February 2011).
32 “New doping investigation in Italy revealed”,
, 6 April 2010,
com/news/new-doping-investigation-in-italy-revealed (accessed 18 February 2011).
33 The rules by which the game is played are always referred to as the “laws of cricket”.
34 “Big business and Bollywood grab stakes in IPL”,
ESPN CricInfo
, 24 January 2008,
espncricinfo.com/ipl/content/story/333193.html (accessed 24 February 2011).
35 “Indian Premier League brand value $4.13bn”,
Times of India
, 22 March 2010.
36 “IPL 2nd highest-paid league, edges out EPL”,
Times of India
, 29 March 2010.
37 “Lalit Modi involved in betting, murky deals: I-T report”,
The Times of India
, 19 April 2010; “Modi’s exit
foregone conclusion: BCCI sources”,
The Times of India
, 19 April 2010.
38 Roger Blitz, “Keeping the Pace”,
Financial Times
, 20 May 2008, citing industry analyst Formula Money
39 Ibid.
40 Since 2009, each driver has been restricted to using only eight engines a season, which has resulted in
reduced engine budgets.
41 The original Concorde Agreement was negotiated in 1981 between FOCA and the Fédération
Internationale du Sport Automobile (or FISA), a subordinate FIA organisation that administered
F1 racing. In a 1993 restructuring, FISA was disbanded, placing F1 racing–and all subsequent
negotiations with the Formula One Group–directly under FIA. FOTA is an effort by the team owners
to exert the same type of collectively organised operators’ influence over FIA-FOG negotiations that
Bernie Ecclestone’s FOCA exerted in the controversies that led to Concorde.
42 Christian Sylt and Caroline Reid, “Winning Formula”,
Financial Times
, 25 September 2008, and Kelvin
Kong, “F1 Grand Prix Tax on Singapore Hotels”,
EZine Articles,
2 January 2010,
com/?F1-Grand-Prix-Tax-on-Singapore-Hotels&id=3511919 (accessed 18 February 2011) and “F1 Race
Boosts Singapore’s Hotel Industry”,
Ezine Articles,
2 January 2011,
Boosts-Singapores-Hotel-Industry&id=3511908 (accessed 18 February 2011).
43 Sylt and Reid, “Winning Formula”.
44 Roger Blitz, “Keeping the Pace”,
Financial Times
, 20 May 2008.
45 Andrew Edgecliff-Johnson, “The Rights Fight”,
Financial Times
, 20 May 2008.
46 Alex Pavlou, “Formula One sponsorship at the chicane”,
Sponsorship and Sports Marketing News and Jobs
, 28 March 2010,
(accessed 18 February 2011).
47 Theo Leggett, “Formula 1 sponsors form alliance”,
BBC News
, 2 September 2010,
co.uk/news/business-11158296 (accessed 18 February 2011), and “Could sponsor alliance spread
to North American sports?”,
Street and Smith’s SportsBusiness Journal
27September 2010,
sportsbusinessjournal.com/article/67060 (accessed 18 February 2011).
48 Dame Elizabeth Neville,
British Horseracing Authority and Integrity in Horseracing: an Independent Review
13 May 2008, p. 10.
49 World Anti-Doping Agency, “Strict Liability in Anti-Doping”,
document/QA_Strict_Liability.pdf (accessed 18 February 2011).
50 International Olympic Committee, Code of Ethics 2009, p. 84,
Reports/EN/Code-Ethique-2009-WebEN.pdf (accessed 18 February 2011).
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