major integrity scandal. The bigger scandals – steroid use in baseball, doping
in cycling, match fixing in football, corrupt judging in the Olympics –are well
known, though the lingering economic and social costs of these episodes may
not be as fully appreciated.
Although major professional, college, and amateur sports organisations
recognise integrity threats exist and have responded with policies, proce-
dures, and personnel dedicated to its preservation, such measures appear
insufficient to meet today’s challenges. This report aims to identify and
examine the nature of today’s threats and put them in the context of
contemporary economic and social change. It concludes by enumerating
some suggested principles and recommendations to safeguard the integ-
rity of sport going forward.
The rest of the report is organised in six sections:
Section 2
offers a clear and practical definition of “sports integrity”
and emphasises the economic and social stakes involved in its
Section 3
provides a comprehensive map of specific threats to
sports integrity and illustrates how these manifest themselves.
Section 4
assesses the soaring financial costs of integrity breaches
to individuals, teams, and entire sports, with reference to illustrative
recent cases.
Section 5
describes the broad range of constituencies invested in
sport, how integrity threats ripple beyond individuals and teams to
affect other significant interests, and the ecosystems of two major
sports, Cricket and Formula One racing.
Section 6
offers some principles and recommendations to guide
responsible decision makers in preserving the integrity of their sport.
The appendices
provide a detailed typology and listing of integrity
threats with contemporary examples of each type, and extended
case studies of the ecosystems of two North American sports,
professional basketball and major college American football.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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