doping methods and the creation of new forms of
illegal gambling also rely on fast-changing, advanced
technologies. The governing bodies of sport have of-
ten been unable to keep pace in their efforts to detect
and mobilise against these threats and consequently
have found themselves playing catch-up. The frag-
mented and decentralised structure of much of the
sports sector has complicated this challenge.
4. Intensifying Media Attention.
around-the-clock scrutiny by both the traditional
media and new user-generated content immediately
conveys the thrill of victory and the agony of defeat
to every corner of the globe but increasingly poses
to participants in the sports sector a double-edged
proposition. “Always on” media attention promises
the prospect of glory and riches on an unprecedented
scale but also ensures the rapid exposure of any in-
appropriate behaviour that occurs within the charmed
circle of athletes, sports organisations, and business
affiliates. Once exposed, such deeds will be replayed
endlessly, replete with lurid accounts of recrimina-
tion, disgrace, divorce, and financial loss.
All these trends are pervasive and unlikely to be
reversed. Responsible constituencies must confront
the negative consequences and implications they
present, even as they exploit the myriad benefits and
opportunities they create. In that effort, a system-
atic classification of the most significant threats to
the integrity of sport can assist in anticipating and
preventing breaches.
i Phil Holland, “Living on the Edge”,
ESPN Soccernet
29 April 2009,
story?id=641689&cc=5901 (accessed 18 February
2011); “UEFA Champions League Final Worth Euros
351.5m, says MasterCard Study”,
World Football Insider
21 May 2010,
ry.aspx?id=33305 (accessed 18 February 2011).
ii John Hoberman,
Mortal Engines: The Science of Performance
and the Dehumanization of Sport
, (New York: Free Press,
1992) p. ix, cited in Toby Miller, Geoffrey A. Lawrence,
Jim McKay, and David Rowe,
Globalization and Sport: Play-
ing the World,
(Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage Publications,
2001) p. 41.
iii Michiko Hase points to French government efforts to
curb “the new slave trade” by outlawing football clubs
buying up African players under the age of 18. See Hase,
“Race in Soccer as a Global Sport”, in John Bloom and Mi-
chael Nevin Willard, eds.,
Sports Matters: Race, Recreation,
and Culture,
(New York: New York University Press, 2002)
pp. 299-319. See also Arturo J. Marcano Guevara and Da-
vid P. Fidler,
Stealing Lives: The Globalization of Baseball and
the Tragic Story of Alexis Quiroz
(Bloomington, IN: Indiana
University Press, 2002), in which the authors discuss
how scouts lure 11 and 12 year old Dominican and Ven-
ezuelan boys with promises of baseball fame and fortune.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
1...,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26,27,28 30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,...124