Typically, fixing a match or arranging to create the necessary “occurrence”
for a spot bettor to collect requires only an individual or, at most, another
one or two people, to produce the desired result, but such cheating may also
involve wider,
systemic wrongdoing and corruption
. In 2005, several Ger-
man referees conspired with gambling syndicates to fix football matches in
the Bundesliga and the German Cup. More recently, in the aforementioned
scandal engulfing European football and now being tried in Bochum, North
Rhine-Westphalia, some 300 people have been implicated in a scheme that
reportedly affected 270 matches across the continent, including 74 in Turkey,
53 in Germany, and 35 in Switzerland, with several witnesses testifying that
match fixers targeted players and referees who were compulsive gamblers
or heavily in debt. Also last year, Indian cricket experienced a scandal when
the Indian Premier League spawned a spate of investigations into corruption
(especially in the award of franchises), money-laundering, fraud, and match
fixing that resulted in the dismissal of the league president, who was report-
edly involved in a host of conflicts of interest.
Illegal or “inappropriate” personal conduct, on or off the field, might easily
cover every category of wrongdoing discussed in this section; all redound
to the detriment of sport. The sad fact is that detrimental misconduct by
sportsmen is all too common. One study in the United States sampled daily
newspapers and websites for February 2009, and found examples of sports
misconduct reported on 22 of 28 days.
Although the consequences of per-
sonal misconduct are felt primarily by the wrongdoer, they often damage
the reputation and interests of their teams, leagues, sports, and sponsors as
well. Many sports organisations and commercial sponsors routinely include
a “morals clause” in contracts with athletes, establishing grounds to sanc-
tion or terminate employment for illegal drug use, acts of public disrepute,
or “moral turpitude”.
Governing bodies in professional sport also have inaugurated formal policies
for personal conduct, although these vary according to history, culture, and
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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