In 2009, a different pattern emerges. Reforms at the Tour reduced the inci-
dence of doping and fewer stories mentioned the practice. Yet, sports reporting
in the news continued to decline. Although mega events like the 2010 FIFA
World Cup temporarily lifted interest in sport, this is short lived. Sport has
been permanently damaged.
So far this report has defined and catalogued integrity breaches in sport and
showed the financial damages such breaches can wreak on individuals, teams
or clubs, and entire sports. It should be emphasised that the financial costs to
the parties directly involved are only part of the total damages that may be re-
alised. As noted in several instances above, the damage may extend to other
constituencies in the global sports sector – to sponsors and commercial partners,
broadcasters and advertisers, manufacturers of equipment and clothing, estab-
lishments in hospitality and tourism in the communities affected, and so on,
ultimately to fans and followers of sport, who may become disillusioned and
eventually cease to invest their time, interest, and resources.
As the guardians of sport ultimately recognise, they are responsible for preserv-
ing the integrity and therefore value of their sport. The first step lies in being alert
to the range of ways in which integrity may be breached. Understanding a sport’s
ecosystem–where its power centres are, who has genuine decision rights, which
components profit most, where its unpoliced zones may be, and the like– is a
necessary second step in assessing individual, team, and sport vulnerability to
integrity breaches.
Armed with that understanding, the guardians of sport will be better able to
devise interventions, erect barriers, and create incentives to establish compre-
hensive, consistent approaches to protecting the integrity of their individual
sports. The final two sections of this report take up the topics of ecosystems
and integrity management. The next section takes up the complexities of
defining and evaluating sports ecosystems, setting the stage for the conclud-
ing section, which explores the policies and countermeasures that governing
authorities might, with foresight, develop to anticipate, pre-empt, and manage
integrity breaches.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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