benefits associated with managing quality throughout the production pro-
cess rather than inspecting for it once products were already manufactured. It
proved to be much cheaper in the long run to control quality throughout than
to reject and rework the finished product. As with quality, so with integrity:
the best way to avoid multi-million dollar losses and embarrassments is to
minimise the possibility of their occurrence and have contingency plans in
place to deal with problems when they occur.
Throughout the sporting world there are examples of federations and gov-
erning bodies getting this message, investigating new ways to identify the
major threats, creating mechanisms to prevent breaches, establishing cred-
ible investigative systems to respond when they occur, and ensuring those
caught are suitably punished. Yet few sports bodies are adequately staffed
or resourced to detect or address incipient problems and take a comprehen-
sive and integrated approach to problems. Sometimes, even when oversight
organisations do detect integrity breaches, they cannot act quickly and effec-
tively, as they may be hamstrung by bureaucratic internal processes or a lack
of adequate regulation that can respond to new integrity breaches.
Moreover, there are some issues that individual organisations cannot
tackle alone. Problems such as match fixing may call for employing
specialised private-sector providers that monitor betting patterns across
sports worldwide and flag suspicious anomalies. Similarly, dealing with
some challenges may require cooperation across sports and geographical
boundaries and the creation of more associations such as WADA or the
Fair Labor Association (see sidebar). Such remedies, however, require that
national and international sports federations voluntarily cede a measure
of sovereignty –not an easy step for organisations that tend to be fiercely
protective of their own prerogatives.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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