sport’s authorities to achieve a consistent approach. They should also cooper-
ate regularly with representatives of the betting industry as well as with local,
national and international law-enforcement agencies.
Targeted Public Relations
A sophisticated PR strategy is vital to raising awareness (within both sports
and the wider public) that integrity threats will not be tolerated, that mea-
sures are being taken to enforce the rules, and that appropriate punishment
will follow. This improves the reputation of a sport, increases the perceived
opportunity cost of cheating, and reduces the payoff of doing so. These cam-
paigns need to be closely tailored to their audience and should resonate
strongly. They should also be coordinated, where possible, across various
sports to maximise their impact.
Certification has three interlocking parts – rules and regulations, codes of con-
duct, and education– that must complement each other to create a robust
integrity regime.
Clear, Enforceable, and Adaptable Rules and Regulations
Rules and regulations should be more specific than “don’t cheat”, but
should avoid defining “cheating” or management misconduct too narrowly
and thereby encourage individuals to dodge the rules on technicalities or
prevent governing bodies from adapting to new integrity threats. In her
independent review for the British Horseracing Authority, Dame Elizabeth
Neville emphasised the benefit of adaptability in regulations and how to
achieve it. “Ideally, rules should be based on a set of underpinning prin-
ciples. The rules themselves should not be too detailed in order to allow
them to be applied more flexibly.”
To be credible, rules ought to be strictly and uniformly applied to ensure con-
sistency across a sport – evenwhen different governing bodies are involved– so
that those caught breaking rules by one organisation cannot escape pun-
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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