1. An analysis of the growing scale and complexity of global sports,
showing a much wealthier, more diverse sector than generally
believed. As a result, more value –both social and economic – is at
risk when the integrity of sport is threatened.
2. A broad definition of “sports integrity”
that emphasises two critical
dimensions: the authenticity of the competition, and the conduct
of competitors associated parties, on and off the field and play,
consistent with preserving the social and economic value of sport.
3. A comprehensive map of sports integrity threats
rooted in
an authoritative typology that reflects the definition’s
critical dimensions of the definition:
Threats to the authenticity of competition include match-
fixing, occurrence or “spot” fixing, illegal or improper
performance enhancement, organised cheating and collusion,
and eligibility deception.
Threats to the social and economic value of sport include
conduct detrimental to sport, management malfeasance,
inadequate physical security, systemic wrongdoing, and health
and welfare negligence.
Each threat is defined and illustrated by recent examples, with
special consideration of threats originating in doping and illegal
gambling, which are the most prevalent dangers to the integrity of
sport today, and in disgraceful personal misconduct, which, given
popular celebrity obsession, often dominates media attention.
4. Analysis of the magnitude and multiple dimensions of potential
financial and reputational losses
that ensue from integrity breaches,
which in the case of a league, franchise, or individual may reach
into the hundreds of millions of dollars and well-nigh irreparable
reputational harm.
5. A systems view of the global sports sector
that embraces a growing
number of constituencies –athletes, owners, teams, leagues,
governing bodies, affiliated business and merchandisers, and related
industries such as hospitality and tourism, education, healthcare,
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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