ishment by appealing to another authority. Consistency must also apply to
enforcement. Individuals caught breaking the rules in similar circumstances
should be similarly disciplined to demonstrate a consistent intolerance of
wayward behaviour and bolster the professional and impartial reputation of
the governing body.
Model Practice:
World Anti-Doping Authority:
the World Anti-Doping Code
contains a “strict liability” rule requiring athletes to be responsible
for what is found in their bodies. This prevents those who test
positive from blaming other parties.
Uniform Codes of Conduct
Codes of conduct apply to players, officials, management, and support per-
sonnel, and ideally are standardised across all the governing bodies of a sport
to reinforce rules against cheating and corruption. Codes might address be-
haviour on and off the field of play and issues that undermine the reputation
of sport. For players, codes should reinforce behaviour aligning with the rules
of integrity: sportsmanship, professionalism, fair play, competing to the best
of one’s ability, acting in a way becoming to sports. Managers, officials, coach-
es and support personnel should be required to adhere to local national law,
exemplify professionalism, ensure a level playing field, practice financial pro-
bity, and declare conflicts of interest. All codes should also outline acceptable
ethical standards by which individuals conduct their relationships to guard
against all forms of abuse, and impose a ban on betting on sports, especially
one’s own, where an individual might have inside information and motives to
affect outcomes.
To make such codes robust and meaningful they should be binding, man-
datory, and written into a sport’s standard contract alongside the “conduct
detrimental” clause. Such codes might function like ISO 9001 standards
or the Kitemark
that certifies the service quality, safety, and performance
on goods and services. Such certification creates more efficient, effective
operations, reduces audits, enhances marketing, and increases turnover,
while bolstering public confidence in the sport and its players, and thereby
maximising its market value.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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