Monitoring activity is a vital part of spotting integrity breaches before they
occur. It requires the development and application of three types of tools: de-
tection mechanisms, preventative systems, and deterrence measures.
Detection Mechanisms
Strong investigative capabilities
Some integrity breaches, such as spot fixing, official misconduct, or the abuse
of athletes require sophisticated investigative capabilities and technologies to
uncover and reduce threats. Investigatory units must be sufficiently empow-
ered and funded, with ample jurisdiction and access to officials at the highest
levels of sports.
Monitoring the performance of participants, officials,
and management
To help detect irregularities in individual performance or behaviour –and thus
the possibility of match fixing, spot fixing, or doping– enforcement agencies
should have access to cutting-edge technology and a strong regulatory frame-
work for monitoring individuals during and between events. This will enable
authorities to identify sudden improvements in performance that might sug-
gest doping, or sudden dips in performance that point to tanking or a spot
fix. Rigorous independent drug-testing regimes that sample large numbers of
competitors both in and out of competition, particularly immediately after a
race or match, are also vital.
Laws prescribing many forms of management wrongdoing, particularly in-
volvement in embezzlement, bribery and theft, are well established in most
countries, and the financial performance of sports organisations should be
monitored through annual account audits. However, it is important to estab-
lish measures to prevent corporate crimes. Executives should be screened for
conflicts of interest and other situations that may make them unsuitable to
take a position.
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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