away from such technologies or are inconsistent in their use. While officials
cannot always be correct, technology and sensible rules for its use might
minimise egregiously incorrect decisions on the field.
Model Practices:
NFL Officiating Review Technology:
The NFL operates a system
whereby coaches or the on-field referee can ask for a judgment by
a replay official for a limited number of close or controversial calls.
In the last two minutes of each half, replays can also be triggered by
the replay official.
ITF Hawkeye:
After a series of bad umpiring calls in major games in
2004, the ITF passed Hawkeye for use enabling players to challenge
calls that they felt were erroneous. Hawkeye was used officially at a
tennis tour event in 2006, with that year’s U.S. Open becoming the
first grand slam event to use the system during play. The system is
now widely used at Grand Slams and major tennis tournaments on
the ATP tour.
Deterrence Measures
Effective deterrence systems ensure that the incentive for playing by the rules
and abiding by codes of conduct and ethics is greater than the payoff for
cheating. As a recent report on integrity management in professional tennis
observes, “There is no greater deterrence than the example of those who do
wrong being
And just as incentives should encourage
adhering to the rules, sanctions for breaking the rules are most useful if both
proportionate to the infraction but sufficiently stringent to deter further po-
tential wrongdoers.
A sensible regime of incentives and sanctions would help ensure that ath-
letes won’t be made to feel like suckers for playing by the rules. Financial
punishments, particularly in highly paid sports, are relatively ineffective.
More effective sanctions might focus on suspensions. For example, those
involved in severe wrongdoing, such as match fixing or doping, might be
GUARDING THE GAME Preserving the Integrity of Sport
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